Jane Austen’s Works ?
One of the most widely read writers in English literature
? “Shakespeare has had neither equal or second. But among the writers who, in the point which we have noticed, have approached nearest to the manner of the great master, we have no hesitation in placing Jane Austen, a woman of whom England is justly proud.” ——Thomas Babington Macaulay （《英国 史》） ? “Miss Austen understood the smallness of life to perfection. She was a great artist, equal in her small sphere to Shakespeare...” ——Alfred Tennyson（ 《悼念》） ? “Emma Woodhouse and Anne Elliot give us as great an impression of ?passion?—that celebrated quality—as the ladies of G. Sand and Balzac.” ——Henry James（《鸽翼》）
? “We can hardly bear to recall the emotions of twenty or fifteen years ago, hardly at all, whereas we respond again quite vividly to the emotions of Jane Austen or Dickens, nearly a hundred years ago.” ——D. H. Lawrence （《查泰莱夫人的情人》）
? “The most perfect artist among women, the writer whose books are immortal, died “just as she was beginning to feel confidence in her own success.” ——Virginia Woolf（ 《戴洛维夫人》） When Shakespeare and Dickens have sunk into venerability, Austen, on the other hand, has become our contemporary.
A Novelist for Everyone
Introduction to Jane Austen
●The English Romantic Age produced two major novelists. They are Scott and Austen. ● She lived in the Romantic Age but her novels show some critical realism. ● The first famous English female writer. ● “the most perfect artist among women (Jane Austen, Charlotte Bront?, George Eliot and Virginia Woolf )
Jane Austen’s Life
Austen’s Hometown ?
? Jane Austen was born on 16th December 1775, at Steventon in Hampshire
? She was educated mainly at home by her father and brothers.
Austen’s House Museum
? This house in Chawton is where Jane Austen lived during the last eight years of her life with her sister Cassandra. In 1949 the house was opened as the Jane Austen’s house museum.
Jane Austen’s Family
Father - a clergyman, ambitious and intelligent Mother – of higher social birth (one of her relatives had been Lord mayor of London) Family – low on financial resources, but high on education Five brothers and one sister. After her father’s death in 1805, the mother, sister, and Jane relied heavily on the charity of the sons. May have died from Addison’s disease or tuberculosis.
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1796年，20岁的奥斯汀遇到勒弗罗伊。情窦初开的她对 这个聪明狡黠 的爱尔兰年轻律师一见钟情。 然而，奥斯汀的牧师家庭希望未来女婿拥有经济实力， 而偏偏那时的勒弗罗伊还是个穷小子。 而拥有6个孩子的勒弗罗伊家也执意与富贵之家联姻， 因此要求勒弗罗伊返回爱尔兰。 从此两人便再没有相见。当年，奥斯汀在致姐姐卡桑德 拉的信中表达了无奈伤心：“终于，这一天还是到来了, 我将与汤姆·勒弗罗伊告别。而当你收到这封信时，一 切都已结束。一想到这些，我不禁泪流。” 后来，勒弗罗伊如家人所愿地娶了个大家闺秀，还成为 爱尔兰最高法院首席法官。直至晚年，他才向侄子坦言 曾与一位作家有过一段“少年之爱”。
? 初恋以被迫分手告终，奥斯汀选择终身不嫁，而将所 有未了的情感注入文学创作。 ? “爱的小屋”身价飙升这段恋情没有让奥斯汀成为勒 弗罗伊太太，却激励她成为英国历史上最受欢迎的女 作家之一。“是他告诉她，她拥有才华。是他鼓励她 在写作中追随自己的思想 ? 尽管他俩没有在一起，但这段恋情却激发她成为职业 作家。”雷说。另一方面，奥斯汀和勒弗罗伊第一次 相遇的房子也行情看涨。这座名为“迪恩小屋”的房 子坐落在汉普郡，充满浓郁的英式特点，典雅而舒适。 ? 悠久历史、建筑价值再加上凄美爱情故事，这座小屋 已经被开出1000万英镑的高价。
Master Works ?
? Sense and Sensibility ? Pride and Prejudice ? Mansfield Park (1814) ? Emma (1816)
《爱玛》 《诺桑觉寺》 (1811) 《理智与情感》 《傲慢与偏见》 (1813) 《曼斯菲尔德庄园》
? Northanger Abbey (1818) ? Persuasion (1818)
? A work of romantic fiction, Sense and Sensibility is set in southwest England between 1792 and 1797,and portrays the life and loves of the Dashwood sisters, Elinor and Marianne.
The story follows the main character Elizabeth Bennet as she deals with issues of manners, upbringing, morality, education, and marriage in the society of the landed gentry of early 19th-century England. Elizabeth is the second of five daughters of a country gentleman living near the fictional town of Meryton in Hertfordshire, near London.
Before she began the novel, Austen wrote, "I am going to take a heroine whom no one but myself will much like." In the very first sentence she introduces the title character as "Emma Woodhouse, handsome, clever, and rich." Emma, however, is also rather spoiled, headstrong, and self-satisfied; she greatly overestimates her own matchmaking abilities; she is blind to the dangers of meddling in other people's lives, and her imagination and perceptions often lead her astray.
Characteristics of her Works
1. Jane Austen is one of the realistic novelists.
She drew vivid and realistic pictures of everyday life of the country society in her novels.
2. Jane Austen’s main concern is about human beings in their personal relations, human beings with their families and neighbors.
Stories of love and marriage provide the framework for all her novels and in them women are always taken as the major characters
3 .Jane Austen is successful in the employment of irony and frequent use of witty and delightful dialogues.
? One of the most influential novelists of the early 19th century ? Famous for her biting social commentary and masterful use of irony ? Also among the first English women to break the male monopoly of novel writing.
? A.subtlety of observation
Last Days Writing Style
She focused on the trivial incidents of everyday life, their relations with members of their own family and with their friends, dancing parties, tea parties, picnics, and gossips.
? B. depth of psychological penetration
? Her interest is in her depiction of human nature. She is gifted in character portrayal, especially in drawing young girls whom she understands well. She is regarded as a psychological realist. After reading the novels, we get into the inner world of the characters: their different personalities, their desires and intentions.
C. language :
her diction is graceful, elegant and refined . Her novels are famous for their witty conversation and omnipresent humor. ?Eg: In Pride and Prejudice, there are 2 successful comic characters: Mrs.Bennet and Mr.Collins.
1.由于居住在乡村小镇，接触到的是中小地主、牧师 等人物以及他们恬静、舒适的生活环境，因此她的作 品里没有重大的社会矛盾。 2.她以女性特有的细致入微的观察力，真实地描绘了 她周围世界的小天地，尤其是绅士淑女间的婚姻和爱 情风波。 3.她的作品格调轻松诙谐，富有喜剧性冲突，深受读 者欢迎
Irony — the use of words to express something
other than, or opposite of, the literal meaning
? the tone of irony, which Austen will use both verbally and structurally
? reveals that the reverse is also true: a single woman,
whose socially prescribed options are quite limited, is in (perhaps desperate) want of a husband.
Irony (反讽 )
? 奥斯丁借助反讽手法悉心雕凿的艺术精品,它 对于反讽的使用主要体现在三大方面: 一、以反讽 (irony)表现主题; 二、以反讽 (irony)刻画人物; 三、以反讽 (irony)组织情节和语言.反讽使该小 说成为一部具有浓厚喜剧色彩的现实主义杰作.
Irony (反讽 )
? 反讽作为一种文学技巧,主要分为言语反讽、情景反 讽、结构反讽和模式反讽四种类型.
? 在简· 奥斯丁的小说<傲慢与偏见>中,不同类型的反讽 灵活地运用于四桩婚姻大事之中,以评判当时以追求金 钱为目的的婚姻观念
她作品的基调和风格标志.在她的作品<傲慢与偏见> 中,这种艺术风格的运用达到了炉火纯青的地步,所以< 傲慢与偏见>是奥斯丁作品中最成功的一部.反讽艺术 的运用是促成这种成功的重要因素之一. <傲慢与偏见>无论从人物刻画,语言使用,情节发展上 都渗透着反讽.
Women, Patriarchy and Property Rights
? Women had few legal rights ? Depend on men for protection and ? ? ? ?
survival Women could not own property (they were considered property) Depended on fathers to “give them away” to a lucrative marriage At death, property went to another male heir Finding a husband was a necessity not a social preoccupation
and Lack of Mobility
? Conflict that arises when
members of middle class, such as Bennets, mingle socially with members of the upper classes, represented by Mr. Darcy and Mr. Bingley. ? Austen was critical of the social barrier between middle and upper class (while remaining silent about members of lower class) ? Elizabeth Bennet breaks class barrier
Theme of Propriety, Social Decorum, and Reputation
? Person’s value depends on
respect of friends and neighbors ? Woman who engaged in inappropriate behavior with a man prior to marriage was morally corrupt. No virtue = social outcast ? Elizabeth values personal worth and individual character over reputation and status ? Standards of proper social etiquette
Theme of Marriage and Family
? Future of Bennet’s daughters ? ? ?
depends on successful union with suitable husbands Women often forced into marital unions purely out of financial necessity New ideal of marriage and partnership based on mutual respect and love Expectation of social network above individual desire for privacy Family’s reputation was tied to reputation of each individual member
《 傲 慢
偏 见 》
Analysis of Major Characters
The second daughter in the Bennet family, and the most intelligent and quickwitted, Elizabeth is the protagonist of Pride and Prejudice and one of the most well-known female characters in English literature. She is honesty, virtue, and lively.
Analysis of Major Characters
However, she must overcome her own mistaken impressions of Darcy, which initially lead her to reject his proposals of marriage. Her charms are sufficient to keep him interested, fortunately, while she navigates familial and social turmoil. As she gradually comes to recognize the nobility of Darcy’s character, she realizes the error of her initial prejudice against him.
Analysis of Major Characters
? The son of a wealthy, wellestablished family and the master of the great estate of Pemberley, Darcy is Elizabeth’s male counterpart
Elizabeth, is a beautiful girl with a judgment. Darcy, is a handsome man with f ortune. Meanwhile, he is proud and fastidious. They meet each other at a ball in the first time, but he makes a bad first impression on her. Darcy’s arrogance an d disdain of the feeling of others, were such as to form that groundwork of disa ppointment of her, on which succeeding events, abusing and reproaching on pu rpose from George Wickham, have built immoveable a dislike. But he is caugh t by her wits and vivacity, especially, a pair of fine dark eyes. Considering her f amily numbers wanting of propriety and good breeding, having low connection s, and so he conceals his affection from being seen. Several months later, he off ers a hand to her. But she refuse it because of herprejudice of Darcy. Subseque ntly, she is amazed at the changes in Darcy’s manner, and realizes her prejudic es is a natural consequence of the vanity. She is moved by that Darcy is in muc h love with her as over. At the same time, there is a deep sentiment of gratitude raises from her heart. At last, with the misunderstanding vanishing, the couple are well married.
? It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife. 凡是有钱的单身汉，都需要一位太太，这已经成了一条举世公认的真 理。 ? After a pairs of person has the prejudice, then is unable fairly to judge the matter the result. 对一个人有成见之后，便无法公平判断事情的结果。 ? Happiness in marriage is entirely a matter of chance. 婚姻的快乐与否纯属命运。 ? No one will ever marry such silly girl 没有人会娶这样的傻丫头。